Accurate, reliable and real-time protection is vital for maintaining integrity and continuity of service on power networks. The increased drive to integrate new renewable generation within the network has also heightened the multi-ended circuit challenge.

Distance and line differential protection systems typically in use today have a number of drawbacks, including costly, complex infrastructure, time synchronisation and physical space issues, and throttling that can result in incorrect tripping due to poor accuracy levels or drifting zone reach.